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Gvendaengz Hingzseiq Moq Baihlaj Ndaw Dangj Cwngci Swnghhoz Mizgven Cunjcwz

(2016 nienz 10 nyied 27 hauh Cungguek Gungcanjdangj Daih Cibbet Gaiq Cunghyangh Veijyenzvei Daihroek Baez Daengxcungq Veiyi doenggvaq)

  
【Cihsaw Hung’iq : hung rauh iq】  Dajyaenq
      
  Yaek banhndei gij saehcingz Cungguek, ceiq youqgaenj dwg youq laeng dangj raeuz, ceiq youqgaenj dwg youq laeng dangj aeu guenj dangj、 coengzyiemz ceih dangj. Dangj aeu guenj dangj itdingh aeu daj gij cwngci swnghhoz ndaw dangj bae guenj, coengzyiemz ceih dangj itdingh aeu daj gij cwngci swnghhoz ndaw dangj hainduj yiemz.

  Haiguh yiengh cwngci swnghhoz ndaw dangj yiemzsuk nyinhcaen, dwg cungj conzdungj gig ndei caeuq cwngci youhsi dangj raeuz. Youq ndaw duenh seizgan raezrangh, dangj raeuz genhciz guh gij cwngci swnghhoz ndaw dangj yiemzsuk nyinhcaen, aeu neix dangguh gij yinvu youqgaenj gensez aen dangj daeuj cadawz, youq dangj raeuz cwngci swnghhoz ndawde guhbaenz cungj gihbwnj gveihfan aeu gangjgouz saedsaeh、 lijlun lienzhaeh saedsaeh、 maedciet lienzhaeh ginzcung、 bihbingz caeuq gag bihbingz、 minzcuj cizcunghci、 yiemzmingz gijliz dangj raeuz daengj guh cujyau neiyungz, vih gyamaenh ndaw dangj doxgiet caeuq cizcungh doengjit、 baujciz gij senhcinsing caeuq cunzgezsing dangj raeuz、 demgiengz senggei vuedlig dangj raeuz rom ndaej le gig lai gingniemh, vih baujcwng guhbaenz gij cungsim yinvu dangj youq gak aen lizsij seizgeiz fazveih ok cozyungh youqgaenj.

  1980 nienz, dangj raeuz Cib’it Gaiq Haj Cung Cienzhoih gvaqlaeg cungjgez le lizsij gingniemh, daegbied dwg baez deng hit “Vwnzva Dagwzming”, ceiqdingh ok 《Doengh Aen Cunjcwz Gvendaengz Ndaw Dangj Cwngci Swnghhoz》, vih buedluenh fanjcingq、 dauqfuk caeuq laebcienz ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz、 doicaenh aen dangj gensez fazveih le cozyungh youqgaenj, gij cujyau yenzcwz caeuq gvidingh de daengz ngoenzneix vanzlij habyungh, aeu laebdaeb saedhengz.

  Youq baihlaj hingzseiq moq, ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz cungjdaej cix gig ndei. Doengzseiz, aen seizgeiz ndeu daeuj, ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz hix raen miz saekdi vwndiz yienhda okdaeuj, cujyau dwg:Youq ndaw di dangjyenz、 ganbu ndeu baudaengz gauhgiz ganbu, lijsiengj saenqniemh mbouj giendingh、 doiq dangj mbouj cungcig、 gijliz soengrwnh、 duetliz vunzlai、 gag dingh cix gaemh vunz ciuq hengz、 loengh haw guh gyaj、 gikgyangq mbouj banhsaeh, gag goq bonjfaenh、 faensanq gag hengz、 siengj guh maz couh guh maz、 byawz hix mbouj daekcoih、 giet gyoengq gap bang、 yienghyiengh vihliux cienzngaenz daengj mbouj doengz cingzdoh mizyouq, gij vwndiz dan yawjnaek hingzsik、 dang guen guh lauxyez、 damdoz youqlag caeuq cungj fungheiq saisaengq baizciengz doedyienh, gij yienhsiengq yawj caen yungh vunz、 buet guen aeu guen、 gai guen cawx guen、 rag biuq oet sienj gimq cungj mbouj raeg, gij yienhsiengq luenh yungh gienzlig、 dam’aeu gwn’oet、 nduknaeuh bienq vaih、 famhfap famh gijliz daengj didmaj banhraih. Daegbied dwg gauhgiz ganbu ndawde gig siujsoq vunz cwngci simgoeg bongqgawh、 sim maez gienzlig, gauj cwngci yaemmaeuz hozdung, lumjbaenz dangqnaj gingq baihlaeng dingj、 gap bang maeuz seileih、 comz bang giet baiq、 maeuzaeu gienzvih daengj. Doenghgij vwndiz neix, cimqmyaex dangj raeuz swhsiengj daudwz giekdaej cingzdoh youqgaenj, buqvaih dangj raeuz doxgiet caeuq cizcungh doengjit cingzdoh youqgaenj, sonjhaih ndaw dangj cwngci swnghdai caeuq dangj raeuz hingzsiengq cingzdoh youqgaenj, yingjyangj dangj caeuq yinzminz saehnieb fazcanj cingzdoh youqgaenj. Neix couh iugouz raeuz bietdingh aeu laebdaeb yungh gaijgwz cauhmoq cingsaenz gyagiengz gensez aen dangj, gyagiengz caeuq gveihfan gij cwngci swnghhoz ndaw dangj, cienzmienh daezsang aen dangj gensez gohyozva suijbingz.

  Dangj raeuz Cibbet Daih doxdaeuj, aen dangj cunghyangh aeu Siz Ginbingz dungzci guh haedsim haenx caenndang haenqrengz guh、 daiqdaeuz guh yienghndei, giendingh doicaenh cienzmienh coengz yiemz ceih dangj, genhciz swhsiengj laeb dangj caeuq cidu ceih dangj maedcaed giethab, doxgyoeb cwngjdun gij cozfungh aen dangj, yiemzhaenq fadceih nduknaeuh, guhseuq gij cwngci swnghdai ndaw dangj, gij cwngci swnghhoz ndaw dangj yienh’ok yienghsiengq moq, aeundaej le dangjsim minzsim, vih dangj caeuq guekgya haiok saednieb gizmen moq daezhawj le baujcwng youqgaenj.

  Lizsij gingniemh cwngmingz, dangj raeuz dangguh aen cwngdangj Majgwzswhcujyi, bietdingh aeu geizhauh singjsag bae gangj cwngci, yiemzsuk nyinhcaen bae haiguh ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz. Vihliux engq ndei bae guh aen doucwngh hungmbwk miz haujlai lizsij daegdiemj moq haenx、 doicaenh hangh gunghcwngz hungmbwk moq gensez aen dangj、 doicaenh gij saehnieb hungmbwk yiengh seveicujyi miz daegsaek Cungguek, gingsouh ndaej “seiq daih gaujniemh”、 haekfug “seiq cungj yung’yiemj”, miz bizyau ceiqdingh bouh cunjcwz gvendaengz laj hingzseiq moq baenzlawz guh ndei ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz he.

  Youq hingzseiq moq baihlaj gyagiengz caeuq gveihfan gij cwngci swnghhoz ndaw dangj, itdingh aeu yungh dangjcangh guh goekgaen bae ciuqei, genhciz gij cwngci lohsienq、 swhsiengj lohsienq、 cujciz lohsienq、 ginzcung lohsienq dangj raeuz, roengzrengz demgiengz ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz gij cwngcising、 sizdaising、 yenzcwzsing、 candousing haenx, roengzrengz demgiengz gij naengzlig gag bienq seuq、 gag guh ndei、 gag gaijmoq、 gag daezsang dangj raeuz, roengzrengz daezsang gij lingjdauj suijbingz caeuq gaemgienz suijbingz dangj raeuz、 demgiengz gij naengzlig dingj nduknaeuh fuengz bienqcaet caeuq dingjdangj fungyiemj, roengzrengz henhoh gij gienzvi dangj cunghyangh、 baujcwng dangj raeuz doxgiet doengjit、 baujciz gij senhcinsing caeuq cunzgezsing dangj raeuz, roengzrengz youq daengx dangj cauhbaenz cungj cwngci gizmen youh miz cizcungh youh miz minzcuj、 youh miz gijliz youh miz swyouz、 youh miz doengjit eiqceiq youh miz gak boux simcingz soengsat sengdoengh hozboz haenx.

  Youq hingzseiq moq baihlaj gyagiengz caeuq gveihfan gij cwngci swnghhoz ndaw dangj, cungdenj dwg gak gaep lingjdauj gihgvanh caeuq lingjdauj ganbu, gvanhgen dwg gauhgiz ganbu daegbied dwg doengh boux gapbaenz Cunghyangh Veijyenzvei、 Cunghyangh Cwngcigiz、 Cunghyangh Cwngcigiz Cangzvu Veijyenzvei haenx. Gauhgiz ganbu daegbied dwg doengh boux gapbaenz caengz cunghyangh lingjdauj haenx itdingh aeu caenndang guh yienghndei, mozfan ciuqsouj dangjcangh dangjgveih, yiemzsouj gij cwngci gijliz caeuq cwngci gvigawj dangj raeuz, genhciz mbouj lumz gij simnyienh codaeuz、 laebdaeb baenaj, genhciz daiqdaeuz guh yienghndei、 aeu baihgwnz daiqdoengh baihlaj, vih daengx dangj daengx sevei guh ok sifan.

  It、 Giendingh Lijsiengj Saenqniemh

  Aen lijsiengj hunggyae gungcanjcujyi caeuq aen lijsiengj caezcaemh seveicujyi miz Cungguek daegsaek, dwg gij cingsaenz dingjdaemx caeuq gij cwngci lingzhoenz vunz Cungguek Gungcanjdangj, hix dwg gij swhsiengj giekdaej baujciz dangj ndaej doxgiet doengjit. Bietdingh aeu cibfaen yawjnaek guh swhsiengj cwngci gensez, dawz giendingh lijsiengj saenqniemh dangguh ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz aen yinvu daih’it de.

  Lijsiengj saenqniemh doenghngauz dwg gij doenghngauz ceiq yung’yiemj, lijsiengj saenqniemh doekgyod dwg cungj doekgyod ceiq yung’yiemj. Daengx dangj dungzci itdingh aeu dawz sinyangj Majgwzswhcujyi、 siengsaenq seveicujyi caeuq gungcanjcujyi dangguh gij gyaepgouz baenz ciuhvunz, gaijcauh gwzgvanh seiqgyaiq, doengzseiz mboujduenh gaijcauh cujgvanh seiqgyaiq, gaijgez ndei sigaigvanh、 yinzswnghgvanh、gyacizgvanh aen “cungjhaigven” vwndiz neix, mboujduenh demgiengz cwngci dinghlig, gag guhbaenz boux giendingh bae saenqngiengx caeuq cungsaed bae hengzguh aen lijsiengj gyaehung gungcanjcujyi caeuq aen lijsiengj caezcaemh yiengh seveicujyi miz Cungguek daegsaek; bietdingh aeu giendingh siengsaenq diuz roenloh、 cungj lijlun、 aen cidu、 yiengh vwnzva seveicujyi miz Cungguek daegsaek. Lingjdauj ganbu daegbied dwg gauhgiz lingjdauj ganbu aeu yungh saedsaeh hengzdoengh hawj dangjyenz caeuq ginzcung roxnyinh daengz lijsiengj saenqniemh miz ligliengh giengzdaih.

  Daengxcungq dangjyenz itdingh aeu ciengzlwenx baujciz vunz Cungguek Gungcanjdangj youq mwh laeb dangj seiz cungj buekguh cingsaenz de, dawz giendingh lijsiengj saenqniemh daiq haeuj ndaw gunghcoz bonjfaenh bae, gagrox vih doicaenh hangh saehnieb yiengh seveicujyi miz Cungguek daegsaek bae haenqrengz guh saedcaiq guh, mwh hingz mwh swnh mbouj dasang mbouj ndaenggon, mwh nanz mwh mbouj swnh mbouj doeknaiq mbouj doenghngauz, naih ndaej gak cungj haenh gak cungj yaeuhlox, gingsouh ndaej gak cungj fung’yiemj caeuq diuhcan, ciengzlwenx baujciz cwngci bonjsaek boux vunz gungcanjdangj.

  Giendingh lijsiengj saenqniemh, itdingh aeu lai hagsib. Youq gwnz swhsiengj lijlun giendingh singjsag dwg gij cenzdiz cwngci giendingh. Daengx dangj itdingh aeu di ndeu cungj mbouj doenghngauz bae genhciz aeu Majgwzswhcujyi daeuj cijdauj swhsiengj, gak gaep dangj cujciz itdingh aeu genhciz gaemmaenh ca ndei lijlun vujcangh, gyoengq dangjyenz、 ganbu daegbied dwg gauhgiz ganbu itdingh aeu gagrox ca ndei yozsiz、 demgiengz dangjsing siuhyangj. Dawz Majgwzswhcujyi lijlun dangguh monz goq itdingh aeu hag ndeu, nyinhcaen hagsib Majgwzswh Lezningzcujyi、 Mauz Cwzdungh Swhsiengj、 Dwng Siujbingz Lijlun、 “Sam Aen Daibyauj” Cung’yau Swhsiengj、 Gohyoz Fazcanjgvanh, nyinhcaen bae hagsib gij cingsaenz youqgaenj baenzroix gangjvah Siz Ginbingz cungjsuhgi, nyinhcaen bae hagsib dangjcangh dangjgveih, mboujduenh daezsang Majgwzswhcujyi swhsiengj gyozvu caeuq lijlun suijbingz. Hidungj dawzndei aen gihbwnj yenzlij Majgwzswhcujyi, hagrox yungh gij lizcangz、 gvanhdenj、 fuengfap Majgwzswhcujyi bae gvanhcaz vwndiz、 faencek vwndiz、 gaijgez vwndiz, daegbied dwg aeu cimyawj yienhsaed vwndiz, mboujduenh gyalaeg yinsiz gij gvilwd gungcanjdangj baenzlawz gaemgienz、 gij gvilwd baenzlawz gensez seveicujyi、gij gvilwd vunzloih sevei baenzlawz fazcanj. Hab’wngq seizdaih cinbu caeuq saehnieb fazcanj iugouz, gvangqlangh bae hagsib gij cihsiz ginghci、 cwngci、 vwnzva、 sevei、 swnghdai vwnzmingz caeuq cezyoz、 lizsij、 fazliz、gohgi、gozfangz、 gozci daengj fuengmienh, daezsang gij naengzlig gig rox daj gwnz canloz、 cauhmoq、 bencwng、 fazci、 daejsienq bae ngeixnaemj, daezsang lingjdauj naengzlig conhyezva suijbingz.

  Genhciz caeuq cauhmoq aen yozsiz cidu ndaw dangj. Aeu dangjveij (dangjcuj) cungsimcuj yozsiz daengj cidu guh cujyau fuengfap, gak gaep dangj cujciz aeu dinghgeiz cizdij caez hag. Dangjyenz、 ganbu bi bi aeu guh liux gvidingh yozsiz yinvu, lingjdauj ganbu aeu dinghgeiz bae dangjyau yozsiz. Genhciz youq ndaw dangj guh cizcungh yozsiz gyauyuz. Gak gaep dangj cujciz aeu gyagiengz dukcoi genjcaz, dawz yozsiz cingzgvang dangguh lingjdauj banhswj caeuq lingjdauj ganbu gaujhwz aen neiyungz youqgaenj ndeu. Genhciz aen cidu cunghyangh lingjdauj dungzci guh ciendaez baugau. Laebcienz aen cidu youq ndaw dangj doiq gij swhsiengj lijlun vwndiz hungloet guh faensik yenzgiu caeuq cingzgvang doengbauq, gya haenq doiq hulenzvangj guh swhsiengj lijlun dazyinx, gangj cingcuj doenghgij swhsiengj lijlun vwndiz yaemndoj de, bangcoh dangjyenz、 ganbu ndwn maenh cwngci lizcangz, faencing dengloek, giengiet mbouj hawj gij swhsiengj loekcak ciemq haih. 

  Ngeih、 Genhciz Diuz Gihbwnj Lohsienq Dangj Raeuz

  Diuz gihbwnj lohsienq seveicujyi cogaep gaihdon dangj raeuz dwg diuzsienq sengmingh aen dangj caeuq guekgya、 diuzsienq vuenyungz yinzminz, hix dwg gij gaenbonj baujcwng ndaej cingqciengz bae gaihcanj gij cwngci swnghhoz ndaw dangj. Itdingh aeu cienzmienh gvancez caephengz diuz gihbwnj lohsienq dangj raeuz, dawz aeu ginghci gensez guh cungsim caeuq genhciz seiq hangh gihbwnj yenzcwz、 genhciz gaijgwz hailangh song aen gihbwnjdenj neix doengjit youq gij sizcen hungmbwk seveicujyi miz Cungguek daegsaek, seiz lawz cungj mbouj ndaej miz saek di bienliz caeuq doenghngauz.

  Daengx dangj itdingh aeu genhciz dawz ginghci gensez guh cungsim di he hix mbouj doenghngauz, dinghsim comzrengz ca’ndei fazcanj aen yinvu ceiq youqgaenj dangj raeuz gaemgienz hwngguek neix, genhciz aen fazcanj swhsiengj aeu yinzminz guh cungsim, doicaenh “haj yiengh gyoebbaenz aen cingjdaej ndeu” cungjdaej baijbouh caeuq hezdiuz doicaenh “seiq aen cienzmienh” canloz baijbouh, genhciz aen fazcanj leixniemh cauhmoq、 hezdiuz、 loegsaek、 hailangh、 caezyiengj, roengzrengz daezsang fazcanj cizlieng caeuq yauyiz, mboujduenh daezsang yinzminz swnghhoz suijbingz, vih saedyienh “song aen bak bi” fwndou muzbyauh、 saedyienh aen loqsiengj Cungguek--Cunghvaz Minzcuz fukhwng hungmbwk dwk roengz vuzciz giekdaej maenhsaed.

  Daengx dangj itdingh aeu genhciz seiq hangh gihbwnj yenzcwz di he hix mbouj doenghngauz, gaenbonj dwg genhciz aeu dangj lingjdauj, genhciz diuz roenloh seveicujyi miz Cungguek daegsaek、 aen lijlun dijhi seveicujyi miz Cungguek daegsaek、 aen cidu seveicujyi miz Cungguek daegsaek、 gij vwnzva seveicujyi miz Cungguek daegsaek, guh daengz ukgyaeuj singjsad、 lizcangz ndi ning, nyenghdingh genhciz caeuq fazcanj seveicujyi miz Cungguek daegsaek.

  Daengx dangj itdingh aeu di ndeu cungj mbouj doenghngauz bae genhciz gaijgwz hailangh, fazveih ginzcung sien caux cingsaenz, daihdamj gaijcauh swhgeij, daihdamj bae doicaenh lijlun cauhmoq、 sizcen cauhmoq、 cidu cauhmoq、 vwnzva cauhmoq nem gizyawz gak fuengmienh cauhmoq, giendingh mbouj bienq bae saedhengz doiq rog hailangh gihbwnj gozcwz, nyengh mbouj ndaej onjdup youq yienhsaed、 gwq souj gij gaeuq. Youq laj hingzseiq moq, dangj lingjdauj yinzminz cienzmienh haeujlaeg gaijgwz, dwg vihliux doidoengh aen cidu seveicujyi miz Cungguek daegsaek ndaej gag guhcaez caeuq fazcanj, doicaenh guekgya ceihleix dijhi caeuq ceihleix naengzlig yendaiva, geiq mbouj byaij diuz loh gaeuq gyaengjbanj、 hix mbouj byaij diuz lohloek gaij roen vuenh yiengq.

  Daengx dangj itdingh aeu dawz genhciz gij swhsiengj lohsienq dangj raeuz ronzdoeng daengz caephengz diuz gihbwnj lohsienq dangj raeuz daengx aen gocwngz bae, genhciz gaijfang swhsiengj、 gangjgouz saedsaeh、 caeuq seizdaih caez baenaj、 gouz caen guh saed, genhciz lijlun lienzhaeh saedsaeh, mboujlwnh gijmaz cungj aeu daj saedsaeh hwnjdin, youq ndaw sizcen gienjniemh caenleix caeuq fazcanj caenleix, geiq fanjdoiq gak cungj mbouj nyinh Majgwzswhcujyi cungj baijyiengq loekloeng neix, youh buqcawz swjbanj lijgaij Majgwzswhcujyi. Genhciz daj guek raeuz lij youq caemhcaiq yaek ciengzgeiz youq seveicujyi cogaep gaihdon aen gihbwnj guekcingz neix guhhwnj, mboujduenh yenzgiu cingzgvang moq、 cungjgez gingniemh moq、 gaijgez vwndiz moq, mboujduenh doicaenh Majgwzswhcujyi bienqbaenz yiengh Majgwzswhcujyi Cungguek.

  Daengx dangj itdingh aeu giengiet henhoh diuz gihbwnj lohsienq dangj raeuz, doiq gij gangjvah caeuq hengzdoengh foujdingh dangj raeuz lingjdauj、 foujdingh seveicujyi cidu guek raeuz、 foujdingh gaijgwz hailangh, doiq gij gangjvah caeuq hengzdoengh mbitmbeuj、 coujva、 foujdingh yiengh seveicujyi miz Cungguek daegsaek, doiq gij gangjvah caeuq hengzdoengh mbitmbeuj、 coujva、 foujdingh gij lizsij dangj raeuz、 gij lizsij Cunghvaz Yinzminz Gunghozgoz、 gij lizsij yinzminz ginhdui, doiq gij gangjvah caeuq hengzdoengh mbitmbeuj、 coujva、 foujdingh bouxdaeuz dangj raeuz caeuq yinghyungz mozfan, doiq sojmiz doenghgij gangjvah caeuq hengzdoengh boihfamh、 mbitmbeuj、 foujdingh gij gihbwnj lohsienq dangj raeuz, itdingh aeu lizcangz singjsak bae fanjdoiq caeuq daeqceih de.

  Gaujcaz nyinhdingh ganbu daegbied dwg gauhgiz ganbu, itdingh aeu sien yawj de dwg mbouj dwg giendingh mbouj bienq bae gvancez gij gihbwnj lohsienq dangj raeuz. Dangjyenz、 ganbu daegbied dwg gauhgiz ganbu, youq dangqnaj daih deng daih loeng mbouj ndaej daidu hamzhawz, mbouj ndaej doenghngauz gihbwnj cwngci laebciengz, mbouj ndaej deng vah loek baijbouh. Youq mwh gij leih’ik yinzminz deng sonjhaih、 gij yienghsiengq dangj caeuq guekgya deng buqvaih、 dangj raeuz gaemgienz deng haepha, aeu daihdamj yat okdaeuj、 gangj mingz daidu, gagrox giengiet bae guh doucwngh. Doiq doengh boux doiq daih deng daih loeng vwndiz mbouj miz lizcangz、 mbouj miz daidu、 mbouj leix mbouj langh、 yut din buet deuz, najdoiq doengh gij gangjvah caeuq hengzdoengh loekcak cix mbouj daeqceih、 mbouj doucwngh, ndoj saeh bauj cawj、 gwq dang vunzndei daengj cwngci mbouj habgek de, itdingh mbouj ndaej nyaemhyungh, gaenq naengh youq gwnz daiz dang lingjdauj, hix itdingh aeu diuh bae, danghnaeuz cingzcez yenzcung, aeu yiemzsuk cawqleix. 

  Sam、 Giengiet Henhoh Gij Gienzvi Dangj Cunghyangh

  Giengiet henhoh gij gienzvi dangj cunghyangh、 baujcwng daengx dangj yiemzgek caephengz faplingh, dwg gvanhaeh daengz gij cenzduz minghyinh dangj caeuq guekgya, dwg gij gaenbonj leih’ik daengx guek gak cuz yinzminz, hix dwg aen muzdiz youqgaenj gyagiengz caeuq gveihfan gij cwngci swnghhoz ndaw dangj. Itdingh aeu genhciz dangjyenz bouxdog fugcoengz dangj cujciz, vunzsiuj fugcoengz vunzlai, baihlaj cujciz fugcoengz baihgwnz cujciz, daengx dangj gak aen cujciz caeuq daengxcungq dangjyenz fugcoengz dangj raeuz daengx guek daibyauj daihhoih caeuq cunghyangh veijyenzvei, haedsim dwg daengx dangj gak aen cujciz caeuq daengxcungq dangjyenz fugcoengz dangj raeuz daengx guek daibyauj daihhoih caeuq cunghyangh veijyenzvei.

  Genhciz aeu dangj lingjdauj, sien dwg genhciz dangj cunghyangh guh cizcungh doengjit lingjdauj. Aen guekgya lawz、 aen cwngdangj lawz, gij lingjdauj haedsim de cungj youqgaenj dangqmaz.

  Daengx dangj itdingh aeu laebhwnj cwngci eiqsik、 daengxbuenz eiqsik、 haedsim eiqsik、 gaen hwnj eiqsik maenhmaenh bae, gagrox youq swhsiengj fuengmienh cwngci fuengmienh hengzdoengh fuengmienh caeuq dangj cunghyangh baujciz doxdoengz. Gak gaep dangj cujciz、 daengxcungq dangjyenz daegbied dwg gauhgiz ganbu cungj aeu gaen hwnj dangj cunghyangh, gaen hwnj gij lijlun caeuq lohsienq fuengcim cwngcwz aen dangj, gaen hwnj gij gezcwz baijbouh dangj cunghyangh, guh daengz gij dangj cunghyangh daezok haenx giengiet yiengjwngq、 gij dangj cunghyangh gietdingh haenx giengiet caephengz、 gij dangj cunghyangh gimq guh haenx giengiet mbouj guh.

  Doenghgij fuengcim cwngcwz vwndiz hungloet nangqdaengz daengx dangj daengx guek haenx, cij miz dangj cunghyangh miz gienz guh gietdingh caeuq cekgej. Gak bumwnz gak dieg dangj cujciz caeuq dangjyenz lingjdauj ganbu ndaej daez genyi hawj dangj cunghyangh, danhseih mbouj ndaej gag luenh guh’ok gietdingh caeuq doiq rog fatbiuj cawjcieng. Danghnaeuz doiq dangj cunghyangh gij gezyi caeuq cwngcwz de miz mbouj doengz yigen, youq baihlaj aen cenzdiz giengiet caephengz, ndaej yiengq dangj cujciz daezok baujlouz yigen, hix ndaej ciuq cujciz cwngzsi daezok gij yigen swhgeij hawj gaepgwnz dangj cujciz cigdaengz dangj cunghyangh.

  Daengx dangj itdingh aeu gagrox fugcoengz dangj cunghyangh lingjdauj. Daengx Guek Yinzda、 Gozvuyen、 Daengx Guek Cwnghez, Cunghyangh Gijliz Genjcaz Veijyenzvei, Ceiqgauh Yinzminz Fazyen、 Ceiqgauh Yinzminz Genjcazyen, cunghyangh caeuq guekgya gihgvanh gak aen bumwnz, yinzminz ginhdui, gak aen yinzminz donzdij, gak aen deihfueng, gak aen giyez swyez danhvei、 sevei cujciz, doenghgij dangj cujciz neix cungj aeu caezcaezcienzcienz bae caephengz gij gezcwz baijbouh dangj cunghyangh.

  Daengx dangj itdingh aeu yiemzgek caephengz aen cidu doiq gij vwndiz hungmbwk aeu guh cingjsi baugau. Daengx Guek Yinzda Cangzveijvei、 Gozvuyen、 Daengx Guek Cwnghez, Cunghyangh Gijliz Genjcaz Veijyenzvei, Ceiqgauh Yinzminz Fazyen、 Ceiqgauh Yinzminz Genjcazyen, cunghyangh caeuq guekgya gihgvanh gak aen bumwnz, gak aen yinzminz donzdij, gak aen swngj、 swcigih、 cizyazsi, doengh aen dangj cujciz de aeu dinghgeiz baugau gunghcoz hawj dangj cunghyangh. Yenzgiu gij saehhangh hungloet roxnaeuz guh’ok gij gietdingh hungloet nangqdaengz daengxbuenz haenx, aeu gibseiz cingjsi baugau dangj cunghyangh, gij cingzgvang caephengz dangj cunghyangh doengh aen gietdingh hungnaek baenzlawz yiengh aeu guh ciendaez baugau. Bungzdaengz gij vwndiz hungloet fwtfat haenx caeuq gij vwndiz hungloet ndaw gunghcoz, aeu gibseiz cingjsi baugau dangj cunghyangh, danghnaeuz cingzgvang gaenjgip itdingh aeu dangciengz cawqleix, aeu caenh cizcwz caenh rengz guh hong ndei bae, caemhcaiq sikhaek baugau.

  Swngj、 swcigih、 cizyazsi dangjveij youq dangj cunghyangh lingjdauj baihlaj mbe guh gunghcoz, doengh aen dangj cujciz caeuq doenghboux lingjdauj ganbu gak aen cujciz doengz gaep aeu gag ciepsouh doengz gaep dangjveij lingjdauj、 yiengq doengz gaep dangjveij fucwz, saehhangh hungloet caeuq cingzgvang youqgaenj aeu gibseiz yiengq doengz gaep dangjveij cingjsi baugau.

  Daengx dangj itdingh aeu gagrox fuengzre caeuq fanjdoiq goyinzcujyi、 faensanqcujyi、 swyouzcujyi、 bwnjveicujyi. Doiq gij gezcwz baijbouh dangj cunghyangh, mboujguenj aen dangj cujciz lawz caeuq boux dangjyenz lawz cungj mbouj ndaej habhoz cix guh、 mbouj habhoz cix mbouj guh, mbouj cinj sien guh caiq gangj, engq mbouj ndaej gangj yiengh guh yiengh、 naj dauq he laeng dauq he. Gij gunghcoz baijbouh gvi bumwnz caeuq deihfueng cizgenz fanveiz de, aeu gvancez gezcwz baijbouh dangj cunghyangh guh cenzdiz, fazveih cizgizsing、 cujdungsing、 cangcausing, danhseih nyengh mbouj cinj swhgeij siengj yawz guh couh yawz guh、 gag boux gag guh, nyengh mbouj cinj miz lingh mbouj guh、 miz gimq mbouj dingz, nyengh mbouj cinj guh gwnz miz cwngcwz、 laj miz fap doiq.

  Seiq、 Dawzyiemz Dangj Raeuz Cwngci Gijliz

  Dawzyiemz gijliz dwg daengx dangj doengjit eiqceiq、 doengjit hengzdoengh、doengzcaez yamqdin byaij baenaj aen baujcang youqgaenj he, dwg gij neiyungz youqgaenj ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz. Itdingh aeu dawzyiemz ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz gijliz, dawz gijliz dingj youq najbak, aeu gij gijliz ndongj lumj diet nei bae coengzyiemz ceih dangj.

  Genhciz youq baihnaj gijliz bouxboux bingzdaengj, ciuqsouj gijliz mbouj miz daeggienz, caephengz gijliz mbouj miz laehvaih, ndaw dangj nyengh mbouj cinj miz gij daegbied cujciz caeuq daegbied dangjyenz mbouj deng gijliz hanhhaed. Moix boux dangjyenz cungj aeu lauyup、 yiemz souj gijliz dangj raeuz, seizlawz cungj cingzgvang lawz cungj mbouj ndaej boihfanj gijliz. Gak gaep dangj cujciz caeuq daengxcungq dangjyenz cungj aeu giengiet bae fanjdui doengh gij hingzveiz boihfamh gijliz dangj raeuz.

  Cwngci gijliz dwg ndaw dangj gij gijliz ceiq gaenbonj、 ceiq youqgaenj de, eiqsouj cwngci gijliz dwg gij giekdaej eiqsouj cienzbouh gijliz dangj raeuz. Daengx dangj daegbied dwg gauhgiz ganbu itdingh aeu yiemzgek eiqsouj cwngci gijliz caeuq cwngci gvigawj dangj raeuz. Dangjyenz mbouj cinj cienzboq gij vah boihfamh lijlun caeuq lohsienq fuengcim cwngcwz dangj raeuz, mbouj cinj goenghai gangj gij vah boihfamh dangj cunghyangh gietdingh, mbouj cinj laeuh gij mimiz dangj caeuq guekgya okbae, mbouj cinj camgya gij cujciz mbouj habfap caeuq gij hozdung mbouj habfap, mbouj cinj biencaux、 cienzboq cwngci yauzyenz caeuq gangj gij vah coujva dangj caeuq guekgya hingzsieng. Dangjyenz mbouj cinj gauj funghgen maezsaenq, mbouj cinj saenqngiengx cunghgyau, mbouj cinj camgya sezgyau, mbouj cinj yungzhawj caeuq cihciz cunghgyau gizdonh seiqlig、 minzcuz faenmbek seiqlig、 bauliz gungjbu seiqlig caeuq doenghgij hozdung de.

  Dangjyenz、 ganbu daegbied dwg gauhgiz ganbu mbouj cinj youq ndaw dangj lingh laeb bouxdaeuz、 comz gvaengx vunz he、 rag bang vunz he, yiemzgimq youq ndaw dangj rag seivunz gvanhaeh、 ganq goyinz seiqlig、 giet baenz leih’ik cizdonz. Doiq doenghboux swngzgei maeuzleih、 rag vunz guh baiq、 gapbang baenz gyoengq, aeu yiemzgek fuengzre, ciuq gijliz ciuq gvidingh cawqleix. Giengiet fuengzre ndaeksimmaeuz、 ndaekyaemmaeuz caeg’aeu dangj caeuq guekgya gienzlig.

  Ndaw dangj gak gaep cujciz caeuq daengxcungq dangjyenz doiq dangj itdingh aeu cungsim lauxsaed、 banhsaeh goengdauh, gangj vah soh、 banh saeh saed、 guh vunz soh, ciuq saedsaeh yiengq dangj fanjying caeuq baugau cingzgvang, fanjdoiq gauj duzngwz songgyaeuj、 guh “bouxvunz miz song aen naj”, fanjdoiq loengh haw guh gyaj、 gyaj bauq cej laux, fanjdoiq yaemmuenz saedcingz、 bauq ndei mbouj bauq rwix. Lingjdauj gihgvanh caeuq lingjdauj ganbu mbouj cinj aeu gijmaz leixyouz caeuq mingzdaeuz bae yungzhawj、 yoegyon、 amqnaeuz roxnaeuz giengzbik gaeplaj gangj vahgyaj. Fanzdwg aenvih loengh haw guhgyaj、 yaemmuenz saedcingz cix cauhbaenz sawj dangj caeuq yinzminz saehnieb sonjsaet hungloet, fanzdwg aenvih loengh haw guhgyaj、 yaemmuenz saedcingz cix yaeuh’ndaej mingzdaeuz、 diegvih、 ciengjli roxnaeuz gizyawz leih’ik, fanzdwg aenvih yungzhawj、 yoegyon、 amqnaeuz roxnaeuz giengzbik gaeplaj gangj vahgyaj、 yaemmuenz saedcingz, cungj aeu ciuq gijliz ciuq gvidingh bae yiemzsuk gyaepcaz cwzyin. Doiq doenghboux dungzci genhciz yenzcwz、 gamj gangj vahcaen de, aeu cihciz、 baujhoh、 gujli de.

  Ndaw dangj mbouj cinj duenghduengh ragrag、 doxbungj doxbauq、 bi rieng rod mumh. Senhconz boux lingjdauj seiz aeu ciuq saedsaeh bae gangj, gimqcij bungjbauq. Senhconz lingjdauj aeu caensaed, mbouj cinj cej bungj, mbouj cinj guhsouh、 soengqlaex、 fat dienh goenghoh hawj lingjdauj, mbouj cinj lingjdauj ganbu youq ndawguek gaujcaz gunghcoz seiz, cujciz coux soengq、 nem byauhyij、 roq gyong roq laz、 bu damj hoengz、 guhlaeuj daengj.

  Gak gaep dangj cujciz itdingh aeu rap hwnj gij cwzyin caephengz caeuq henhoh cwngci gijliz caeuq cwngci gvigawj, doiq gij hingzveiz famhfanj cwngci gijliz aeu giengiet bihbingz hatdingz, mbouj ndaej youzcaih de guh. Gak gaep dangj cujciz caeuq gijliz genjcaz gihgvanh aeu gyagiengz gamduk caeuq genjcaz gijliz caephengz cingzgvang, giengiet fuengzre caeuq niujcingq gij vwndiz mwh caephengz gijliz soengrwnh fwngzunq haenx.

  Haj、 Baujciz Dangj Caeuq Yinzminz Ginzcung Cungj Lwednoh Lienzhaeh De

  Gij lizcangz yinzminz couh dwg gij gaenbonj cwngci lizcangz aen dangj raeuz, yinzminz ginzcung dwg giz goekmboq dangj raeuz aeundaej ligliengh haenx. Dangj raeuz dwg daj ndaw yinzminz daeuj, mbouj miz yinzminz yungjhu caeuq cihciz, dangj couh yaek saetbae goekrag. Itdingh aeu dawz aen gaenbonj cunghcij genhciz itsim iteiq vih yinzminz fuzvu、 baujciz dangj caeuq yinzminz ginzcung lwed noh lienzhaeh dangguh gaenbonj iugouz bae gyagiengz caeuq gveihfan gij cwngci swnghhoz ndaw dangj.

  Daengx dangj itdingh aeu laebhwnj aen lizsij veizvuzcujyi gvanhdenj yinzminz ginzcung dwg boux dajcauh lizsij neix maenhmaenh bae, ndwn’onj ginzcung lizcangz, gyalaeg ginzcung ganjcingz. Gak caengz dangj cujciz、 daengxcungq dangjyenz daegbied dwg gak gaep lingjdauj gihgvanh dem lingjdauj ganbu aeu gvancez gij ginzcung lohsienq aen dangj, guh daengz guhmaz cungj vih ginzcung, guhmaz cungj baengh ginzcung, daj ndaw ginzcung daeuj, haeuj ndaw ginzcung bae, vih ginzcung banh saedsaeh、 gej nanzsaeh, dang ndei boux fugsaeh yinzminz. Genhciz cam yinzminz aeu genyi、 cam yinzminz siengj aeu gijmaz、 cam yinzminz aeu geiqmaeuz, itdingh mbouj ndaej youq dangqnaj ginzcung gag nyinhnaeuz guh ndaej deng、 ndaengndiengq haep vunz, itdingh mbouj ndaej dangguen guh lauxyez、 mbouj gvansim gij haemzhoj ginzcung, engqgya mbouj ndaej haephangz ginzcung、 sonjhaih caeuq ciemqaeu gij leih’ik ginzcung. Gaijndei caeuq cauhmoq gij fuengfap lienzhaeh ginzcung, laebhwnj caeuq guhcaez minzyi diucaz daengj cidu, yungh conzdungj meizdij caeuq hulenzvangj daengj gak cungj miengloh bae liujgaij gij cingzgvang gwnz biengz、 gij siengjfap yinzminz, dingqyawj ginzcung heuh aeu gijmaz, maedciet dangj nem ginzcung gvanhaeh、 ganbu nem ginzcung gvanhaeh, doiq gwnz fucwz caeuq doiq laj fucwz doengzcaez guh hwnjdaeuj, roengzrengz saedyienh ndei、 henhoh ndei、 fazcanj ndei gij gaenbonj leih’ik ceiq guengjdaih yinzminz.

  Daengx dangj itdingh aeu giengiet fanjdoiq hingzsicujyi、 gvanhliuzcujyi、 yangjlozcujyi caeuq gij fungheiq saisaengq sajbaizciengz, lingjdauj ganbu daegbied dwg gauhgiz ganbu aeu caenndang guh yienghndei. Fanjdoiq hingzsicujyi, cujyau dwg gaijgez cozfungh fouzfeuz、 gunghcoz mbouj saed, vwnzgen baenz ndoi hoih lai baenz haij、 guh yiengh hawj vunz yawj, dam mingz lienh leih、 loengh haw guhgyaj daengj vwndiz. Fanjdoiq gvanhliuzcujyi, cujyau dwg gaijgez duetliz saedsaeh、 duetliz ginzcung, siuhgiz wngqdoiq、 doi bae doi dauq, guhsaeh mbouj gangj leix、 maezlienh daeggienz daengj vwndiz. Fanjdoiq yangjlozcujyi, cujyau dwg gaijgez gyaep mingz gyaep leih、 dam yiengjsouh, gangj baizcangz、 lauh huq lumz ceiq daengj vwndiz. Fanjdoiq gij fungheiq saisaengq sajbaizciengz, cujyau dwg gaijgez saisaengq lanhyungh、 daihsaengq fouz doh, lanh sai guhndauq、 nduknaeuh doekbaih daengj vwndiz. Genhciz ca bingzciengz、 ca sijsaeq、 ca ciengzgeiz, daegbied dwg aeu fuengzre caeuq cazcawq gak cungj “swfungh vwndiz” gaenq ndumjyo、 bienqyiengh de, cingqciengz、 ciengzgeiz dawz cunghyangh bet hangh gvidingh cingsaenz guh saed bae.

  Gak gaep dangj cujciz、 daengxcungq dangjyenz daegbied dwg lingjdauj ganbu itdingh aeu daezsang gij naengzlig guh ginzcung gunghcoz, geiq fugsaeh ginzcung youh daiqlingx ginzcung giendingh mbouj bienq bae gvancez lozsiz gij lijlun caeuq lohsienq fuengcim cwngcwz dangj raeuz, sawj dangj raeuz cujcangh bienqbaenz gij hengzdoengh ginzcung gagnyienh bae guh, dazyinx ginzcung dingq dangj gangj、 riengz dangj byaij. Giengiet fanjdoiq minglingcujyi, giengiet fanjdoiq “veijbahcujyi”, mbouj cinj vihliux cwngci cingzcik、 biuqsoq caeuq hingzsiengq goyinz cix duetliz saedsaeh seizbienh gezcwz、 seizbienh wngqcingz.

  Genhciz gij cidu lingjdauj ganbu guh diucaz yenzgiu、 dinghgeiz ciepraen ginzcung daeuj cunz、 caeuq ganbu ginzcung gyausim gangjgoj、 ginzcung habhoz cingzdoh bingzdingh daengj. Gak gaep lingjdauj ganbu itdingh aeu haeuj daengz saedsaeh bae、 haeuj daengz gihcwngz bae、 haeuj daengz ginzcung bae, lai baedaengz giz dieg diuzgen gannanz、 cingzgvang fukcab、 mauzdun doedyienh haenx gaijgez vwndiz, siengj caenh banhfap vih ginzcung siu you cawz hoj. Lingjdauj ganbu roengz gihcwngz aeu depgaenh beksingq, mbouj aeu buenx soengq, liujgaij saedsaeh cingzgvang, dukcaz lozsiz, gaijgez vwndiz, giengiet fanjdoiq guh yiengh、 gangjboq yaeuh’aeu sim’angq. Doiq sojmiz gij hingzveiz guh“hingzsieng gunghcwngz”caeuq “cwngciz gunghcwngz” sai rengz sai cienz haenx, aeu yiemzsuk bae cazdawz cwzyin caeuq gyaepcaz cwzyin, ciuq gijliz caeuq faplwd bae cawqleix. Youq wngqdoiq ancienz saehhux hungloet、 fwtfat saehgienh hungloet、 swyenz caihaih saehgienh hungloet daengj doenghgij saehgienh neix, lingjdauj ganbu itdingh aeu bae daengz itsienq、 haeuj daengz baihnaj bae cijveih, gibseiz hezdiuz gaijgez gij vwndiz doekyienh de, gibseiz hoizwngq sevei gvensim.

  Dangjyenz、 ganbu itdingh aeu ciuqgoq daengxbuenz, gagrox henhoh sevei huzndei onjdingh, bungzdaengz gij vwndiz nangqdaengz leih’ik bonjfaenh caeuq gizbu leih’ik, wnggai doenggvaq cingqciengz miengloh fanjying hawj baihgwnz, cizgiz cujdung guh ndei vaqgej sevei mauzdun、 fangzgung sevei fung’yiemj gunghcoz, mbouj cinj cujciz、 camgya、 yungzhawj doenghgij hozdung mbouj habfap de gauj luenh sevei cizsi.

  Roek、 Genhciz Minzcuj Cizcunghci Yenzcwz

  Minzcuj cizcunghci dwg gij gaenbonj cujciz yenzcwz aen dangj raeuz, dwg hangh cidu youqgaenj baujcang gij cwngci swnghhoz ndaw dangj ndaej cingqciengz bae guh haenx. Genhciz cizdij lingjdauj cidu, saedhengz cizdij lingjdauj caeuq goyinz faengoeng fucwz doxgiethab, dwg aen bouhfaenh youqgaenj gapbaenz minzcuj cizcunghci haenx, itdingh aeu daj gyaeuj daengz rieng bae genhciz, aen cujciz lawz roxnaeuz boux lawz youq gijmaz cingzgvang baihlaj cungj mbouj cinj yungh cungj leixyouz lawz boihfanj hangh cidu neix.

  Gak gaep dangjveij (dangjcuj) itdingh aeu genhciz cizdij lingjdauj cidu. Fanzdwg gij vwndiz hungnaek, aeu ciuq gij yenzcwz cizdij lingjdauj、 minzcuj cizcungh、 lengq boux gag naemj、 veiyi gietdingh, youz cizdij daujlun、 ciuq vunzsiuj fugcoengz vunzlai guh’ok gietdingh, mbouj cinj yungh gizyawz hingzsik dingjlawh dangjveij nem cangzveijvei (roxnaeuz dangjcuj) daeuj guh lingjdauj. Lozsiz dangjveij cangzveijvei (roxnaeuz dangjcuj) lwnhsaeh gveihcwz caeuq gezcwz cwngzsi, laebcienz aen cidu cangzveijvei yiengq cenzveijvei dinghgeiz baugau gunghcoz caiqlij ciepsouh cenzveijvei gamduk, giengiet fanjdoiq caeuq fuengzre gag dingh cix gaemh vun ciuq hengz roxnaeuz dan guenj swhgeij mbouj aeu gaepgwnz, giengiet fanjdoiq caeuq fuengzre ngeixlwnh daengzndwi mbouj guh gietdingh、 gietdingh daengzndwi mbouj bae caephengz、 caephengz daengzndw mbouj gangj saedyauq, giengiet fanjdoiq caeuq fuengzre aeu gij mingzdaeuz dangjveij cizdij gezcwz daeuj itheij famhfap. Gak gaep dangjveij (dangjcuj) aeu rox yawj daihseiq、 gaem daihsaeh、 guenj daengxbuenz, gibseiz yawjraen caeuq gaijgez mauzdun nem nanzdaez, mbouj dawz cwzyin doihawj baihgwnz nyoengx hawj baihlaj, mbouj louz vwndiz hawj boux baihlaeng. Laebhwnj aen cidu gaepgwnz cujciz youq mwh yaek guh’ok gij gezcwz youqgaenj mizgven gaeplaj cujciz couh sien cam aeu gij yigen gaeplaj cujciz.

  Boux lingjdauj banhswj cwngzyenz itdingh aeu demgiengz daengxbuenz gvanhnen caeuq cwzyin eiqsik, youq mwh yenzgiu gunghcoz aeu cungfaen fatbiuj yigen, gezcwz guhbaenz le baez ca couh ca daengzdaej, mbouj ndaej boihfamh gij gietdingh cizdij cix lingh guh cawjcieng、 gag bae guh gij bonjfaenh laihnaeuz dwg deng haenx. Giengiet fanjdoiq caeuq gaijcingq gij hingzveiz loengloek lumjbaenz dangqnaj mbouj gangj、 baihlaeng luenh gangj, gwnz hoih mbouj gangj、 laeng hoih luenh gangj, dangqnaj guh yiengh ndeu、 baihlaeng guh lingh yiengh daengj. Genhciz gangj yenzcwz、 gangj gvigawj, doengzcaez henhoh gij doxhuz youq gwnz giekdaej genhciz dangjsing yenzcwz de.

  Boux cujyau fucwz dungzci dangjveij (dangjcuj)itdingh aeu fazyangz minzcuj、 rox guh cizcungh、 gamj rapdawz cwzyin. Youq mwh yenzgiu daujlun vwndiz aeu dawz swhgeij dangguh ndaw banhswj boux cwngzyenz bingzdaengj ndeu, cungfaen fazyangz minzcuj, yiemzgek ciuq cwngzsi gezcwz、 ciuq gvigawj banhsaeh, louzsim dingqaeu gij yigen mboujdoengz, cingqdeng bae doiqdaih gij yigen gyoengq vunz noix, mbouj ndaej gauj aen cidu youz bouxvunz ndeu gangj le suenqsoq engqlij gauj gyahcangjci dem. Cihciz banhswj cwngzyenz youq ndaw cizcwz fanveiz doglaeb fucwz guh hong, giengiet fuengzre caeuq haekfug mingzdaeuz dwg cizdij lingjdauj、 saedsaeh dwg youz boux dog roxnaeuz gij vunz noixsiuj gangj le suenqsoq, giengiet fuengzre caeuq haekfug mingzdaeuz dwg cizdij fucwz、 saedsaeh dwg mbouj miz vunz fucwz.

  Boux lingjdauj banhswj cwngzyenz itdingh aeu giengiet caephengz gij gietdingh dangj cujciz, danghnaeuz miz yigen mboujdoengz, ndaej baujlouz roxnaeuz yiengq aen dangj cujciz gaepgwnz daezok, hoeng youq aen dangj cujciz gaepgwnz roxnaeuz bonjgaep mboujcaengz gaijbienq gietdingh gaxgonq, cawzliux caephengz gietdingh yaek sikhaek yinxhwnj hougoj yiemzcungh daengj gaenjgaep cingzgvang okdaeuj, itdingh aeu mbouj miz diuzgienh bae caephengz gij gietdingh dangj cujciz gaenq guh’ok de.

  Lingjdauj banhswj cwngzyenz faengoeng ciuq gvidingh yiengq gaepgwnz dangjveij bauqbwh, mbouj miz leixyouz cingqdangq、 caengz yiengq gaepgwnz dangjveij bauqbwh gvaq mbouj ndaej diuzcingj. Lingjdauj ganbu aeu gagrox fugcoengz cujciz faengoeng anbaiz, mboujlwnh bouxlawz cungj mbouj ndaej yiengq cujciz gangjgyaq、 mbouj fugcoengz cujciz anbaiz. Lingjdauj ganbu mbouj cinj dawz gij hong de faenguenj、 gij lingjyiz caeuq deihfueng de faenguenj dangguh “gij dieglingx seivunz”, mbouj cinj gag dingh cix gaemh vun ciuq hengz.

  Youq dangj raeuz gunghcoz caeuq hozdung ndawde, giz wnggai aeu aen mingzdaeuz cujciz oknaj couh mbouj ndaej aeu aen mingzdaeuz goyinz, wnggai youz cizdij yenzgiu couh mbouj ndaej goyinz gag byaujdai, mbouj cinjhawj yungh gij cawjcieng goyinz dingjlawh gij cawjcieng dangj cujciz、 yungh gij gietdingh goyinz dingjlawh gij gietdingh dangj cujciz.

  Caet、 Fazyangz Ndaw Dangj Minzcuj Caeuq Baujcang Dangjyenz Gienzleih

  Ndaw dangj minzcuj dwg diuzmingh aen dangj raeuz, dwg gij cwngci swnghhoz ndaw dangj cizgiz gengangh aen giekdaej youqgaenj de. Aeu genhciz caeuq guhcaez ndaw dangj minzcuj gak hangh cidu, daezsang gij caetliengh ndaw dangj minzcuj, ndaw dangj gezcwz、 caephengz、 gamduk daengj gunghcoz itdingh aeu caephengz gij minzcuj yenzcwz caeuq cwngzsi dangjcangh dangjgveih doekdingh haenx, aen dangj cujciz lawz caeuq boux vunz lawz, cungj mbouj ndaej gaemhnaenx gij minzcuj ndaw dangj, buqvaih gij minzcuj ndaw dangj.

  Cunghyangh Veijyenzvei、 Cunghyangh Cwngcigiz、 Cunghyangh Cwngcigiz Cangzvu Veijyenzvei caeuq aen dangj gak gaep veijyenzvei guh ok gezcwz baijbouh hungnaek, bietdingh aeu haeujlaeg bae guh diucaz yenzgiu, gvangqlangh dingqaeu gij yigen caeuq genyi gak fuengmienh, gietcomz gij dungxcaiz caeuq ligliengh vunzlai, guh daengz gohyoz gezcwz、 minzcuj gezcwz、 eifap gezcwz.

  Bietdingh aeu aeueiq gij cawjdaej diegvih dangjyenz、 baujcang gij minzcuj gienzleih dangjyenz, lozsiz dangjyenz gij gienzleih rox cingzgvang、 gienzleih caeuqfaenh、 gienzleih senjgij、 gienzleih gamduk de, baujcang daengxcungq dangjyenz bingzdaengj yiengjmiz gij gienzleih dangjyenz ndaw dangjcangh gvidingh、 hengzguh gij yivu dangjyenz ndaw dangjcangh gvidingh, genhciz cungj dungzci gvanhaeh ndaw dangj minzcuj bingzdaengj, ndaw dangj itlwd heuh dungzci. Aen dangj cujciz lawz caeuq boux dangjyenz lawz cungj mbouj ndaej ciemqhaih gij minzcuj gienzleih dangjyenz.

  Deudoeng diuz roenloh hawj dangjyenz camgya daujlun gij hongsaeh ndaw dangj, haigvangq diuz miengloh dangjyenz gangj ok yigen, cauh ok aen cwngci heiqfaenh ndaw dangj minzcuj yaenglwnh haenx. Laebcaez ndaw dangj gezcwz hungnaek lwnhcingq bingzguj caeuq cam’aeu yigen daengj cidu. Gak gaep dangj cujciz doiq doengh aen gezcwz hungnaek caeuq vwndiz hungnaek de wnggai yungh lai cungj fuengsik cam’aeu gij yigen dangjyenz, dangjyenz miz gienz youq gwnz dangjhoih fatbiuj yigen mboujdoengz, doiq gij gezyi caeuq cwngcwz aen dangj danghnaeuz miz yigen mbouj doengz, youq laj cenzdiz giengiet caephengz, ndaej singhmingz baujlouz, doengzseiz ndaej dawz gij yigen swhgeij yiengq gaepgwnz cujciz cigdaengz dangj cunghyangh daezok. Doicaenh dangjvu goenghai, fazcanj caeuq yungh ndei gij hingzsik moq dangjvu goenghai, hawj dangjyenz engq ndei liujgaij caeuq caeuqfaenh gij saehfaed ndaw dangj.

  Ndaw dangj senjgij bietdingh aeu daejyienh gij eiqceiq bouxsenjgij, gveihfan caeuq guhcienz senjgij cidu gveihcwz. Mboujguenj ndaw dangj aen cujciz lawz caeuq boux goyinz lawz cungj mbouj ndaej yungh yiengh fuengsik lawz bae gazngaih bouxsenjgij ciuq gvidingh gag guhcawj hengzsawj senjgijgenz, giengiet fanjdoiq caeuq fuengzre gij yienhsiengq ciemqfamh gij gienzleih senjgij caeuq gij gienzleih deng senjgij boux dangjyenz, giengiet fuengzre caeuq cazcawq hingzveiz rag biuq oeteiq senjgij daengj.

  Genhciz gij daibyauj daihhoih cidu aen dangj raeuz. Mbouj ginggvaq baecinj mbouj ndaej daezgonq roxnaeuz nguhlaeng ciuhai dangj daibyauj daihhoih. Lozsiz aen yaemhgeiz cidu bouxdaibyauj camgya dangj daibyaij daihhoih de, saedhengz daibyauj dizanci, laebcaez gij cidu lumjbaenz daibyauj caeuqfaenh gezcwz hungloet、 camgya doigawj gij ganbu youqgaenj caeuq minzcuj bingzyi、 lezsiz dangjveij mizgven veiyi、 lienzhaeh dangjyenz ginzcung daengj. Engq ndei fazveih gij cozyung deihfueng gak gaep dangjveij caeuq veijyenz. Laebcaez ndaw dangj cingzgvang doengbau cidu、 cingzgvang fanjyingj cidu, deudoeng diuz miengloh dangjyenz biujdab yigen、 iugouz lawhvuenh ndaw gihcwngz dangj cujciz lingjdauj banhswj boux guh hong mbouj ndei de. Ciuqgeiz vuenhgaiq gihcwngz dangjveij、 cungjcihbu caeuq cihbu veijyenzvei.

  Dangjyenz miz gienz yiengq dangj miz gaengawq bae biengjloh、 genjgij gij saehsaed famh gijliz famhfap dangj raeuz aen cujciz lawz caeuq boux dangjyenz lawz, dizcang saedmingz gawjbauq. Dangjyenz miz gienz youq gwnz dangjhoih miz gaengawq bae bihbingz aen cujciz lawz caeuq boux dangjyenz lawz. Dangj cujciz gawq aeu yiemzsuk cawqleix gij hingzveiz yawjsiuj、 diuqnanz、 atnaenx bouxgawjbauq daegbied dwg gij hingzveiz dwkceih boizhaemz, youh aeu yiemzsuk gyaepcaz cawqleix gij hingzveiz bangjgauq haih vunz. Doiq boux dangjyenz deng bangjlaih、 bangjgauq、 gawjbauq saehcingz yiemzcungh mbouj caensaed de, dangj cujciz aeu gibseiz vih de gangj cingcuj caeuq hoizfuk mingzdaeuz. Aeu baujcang dangjyenz gienz baijleix、 gienz sinhsu daengj gienzleih. Doiq mwh caephengz gijliz miz gij loengloek roxnaeuz veizgij hingzveiz de, aeu ciuqgvi gibseiz gaijcingq、 siucawz yingjyangj doengzseiz gyaepcaz gij cwzyin mizgven cujciz caeuq yinzyenz.

  Bet、 Genhciz Aen Daujyang Cingqdeng Bae Genj Vunz Yungh Vunz

  Genhciz genhciz aen daujyang cingqdeng bae genj vunz yungh vunz, dwg yiemzsuk ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz gij cujciz baujcwng de. Bietdingh aeu yiemzgek biucinj、 laebcaez cidu、 guhcienz cwngcwz、 gveihfan cwngzsi, sawj gij ganbu genj okdaeuj de cujciz cuengqsim、 ginzcung habhoz、 ganbu fugheiq.

  Genj yungh ganbu bietdingh aeu genhciz gij ganbu diuzgienh ndaw dangjcangh gvidingh de, genhciz miz daek youh miz caiz、 aeu daek guh gonq, genhciz seiq fueng bet baih、 yawj caiz yungh vunz, genhciz aen byauhcunj ganbu ndei saenqniemh giendingh、 vih yinzminz fuzvu、 gaenx saehguek guh saedsaeh、 gamj rap cwzyin、 ndang cingq fwngz seuq. Dawz goengdauh cingqbaiq dangguh ganbu gunghcoz haedsim leixniemh ronzdoeng gvaq genj vunz yungh vunz daengx aen gocwngz bae, guh daengz goengdauh doiqdaih ganbu、 goengbingz bingzgyaq ganbu、 goengcingq sawjyungh ganbu.

  Genj vunz yungh vunz bietdingh aeu giengzvaq dangj cujciz lingjdauj caeuq bajgvan cozyung, lozsiz aen cidu ciuqsaed geiqloeg gij hong genj yungh ganbu, saedbauj moix aen hothoh cungj guh ndaej gveihfan. Cujciz bumwnz aeu yiemzgek ciuq cwngcwz、 yenzcwz、 cidu banhsaeh, saedsaeh gouz dwg gaujcaz bingzgyaq ganbu, gamj vih ganbu gangj coenzvah goengdauh, gamj bae daeqceih mwh genj vunz yungh vunz gij veizgveih hingzveiz de, cauhbaenz boux ak ndaej hwnj、 boux yaez roengzdaiz、 boux yak vutvak gij genj vunz yungh vunz daujyang neix. Gyagiengz gamduk cazcam gij cwzyin genj vunz yungh vunz, yungh vunz mbouj gaujcaz ndei yungh vunz loengloek aeu yiemzsuk gyaepcaz cwzyin.

  Gak gaep dangj cujciz itdingh aeu gagrox bae fuengzre caeuq niujcingq yungh vunz fuengmienh gij fungheiq mbouj cingq caeuq gak cungj bienyiengq. Giengiet gimqcij buet guen aeu guen、 cawx guen gai guen, oetcienz rag senjbiuq daengj hingzveiz, giengiet gimqcij gij hingzveiz yiengq dangj iet fwngz aeu cizvu、 aeu mingzdaeuz、 aeu daiyi, giengiet gimqcij gij hingzveiz yiengq dangj cujciz gangj gyaqcienz、 mbouj fugcoengz cujciz gietdingh haenx. Giengiet gaijcingq gij bienyiengq dandan yawj biuqsoq、 yawj faensoq、 yawj swnghcanj cungjciz、 yawj nienzlingz daengj aeu vunz, giengiet haekfug gij byaijyiengq youz siujsoq vunz youq ndaw vunz siujsoq genj vunz. Lingjdauj ganbu aeu daiqdaeuz caephengz gij ganbu cwngcwz dangj raeuz, mbouj cinj yungh vunz dan yungh boux caengaenh swhgeij、 gauj boux caen boux gyae, mbouj cinj yungh mingzleih diegvih daeuj yaeuhlox bouxwnq、 luenh loh siusik hawj bouxwnq、 soucawx simvunz, mbouj cinj goyinz vih ganbu dizbaz nyaemhyungh dox dongx、 ndenq saenq. Lingjdauj ganbu mbouj ndaej cabfwngz gij hong senjbaz nyaemhyungh ganbu giz gunghcoz swnghhoz gvaq de、 aen danhvei guh hong gvaq de caeuq aen lingjyiz mbouj gvihaeuj swhgeij faenguenj de, mizgven deihfueng caeuq danhvei dangj cujciz aeu daeqceih cungj hingzveiz veizfanj cujciz yenzcwz aen dangj neix.

  Gijmaz vunz cungj mbouj cinj dawz gij ganbu aen dangj dangguh caizcanj seimiz, ndaw dangj mbouj cinj gauj ndang vunz baenghgauq gvanhaeh. Lingjdauj ganbu daegbied dwg gauhgiz ganbu mbouj ndaej gauj gyahcangjci, iugouz bouxwnq vanzcienz dingqcoengz minghlingh, daegbied dwg mbouj ndaej iugouz gaeplaj guh gij saeh veizfanj dangjgij guekfap de; gaeplaj wnggai daeqceih gaepgwnz lingjdauj ganbu cungj iugouz neix doengzseiz baugau hawj gaepgwnz dangj cujciz cigdaengz dangj cunghyangh bae, mbouj wnggai doiq gaepgwnz lingjdauj ganbu mbouj miz yenzcwz dwk fugcoengz. Gveihfan caeuq guhseuq ndaw dangj dungzci caeuq dungzci baedauq, lingjdauj ganbu doiq dangjyenz mbouj ndaej bak coi fwngz vix, dangjyenz doiq lingjdauj ganbu mbouj ndaej bi rieng rod mumh.

  Ganbu dwg gij caizfouq dijbauj dangj raeuz, bietdingh aeu gawq yiemzgek gyauyuz、 yiemzgek guenjleix、 yiemzgek gamduk, youh aeu youq cwngci fuengmienh、 swhsiengj fuengmienh、 gunghcoz fuengmienh、 swnghhoz fuengmienh caensim gvansim, gujli ganbu guh saeh cauh nieb、 daihdamj guh saeh.

  Laebhwnj gij gihci hawj loek gaij loek、 bauyungz gij saetloeng ganbu youq ndaw gunghcoz daegbied dwg ndaw gaijgwz cauhmoq miz ok haenx. Genhciz ceih gonq re laeng、 yw bingh gouq vunz, cingqdeng doiqdaih gij ganbu famh loengloek de, bangcoengh de nyinhrox caeuq gaijcingq loengloek. Mbouj ndaej gyoeggyaux gij singqcaet ganbu soj famh loengloek de roxnaeuz mauhgangj loengloek cingzdoh doiq ganbu guh’ok cawqleix mbouj habdangq, mbouj ndaej leihyungh ganbu soj famh loengloek vih swhgeij okheiq、 dwkceih boizhaemz.

  Gak gaep dangj cujciz caeuq lingjdauj ganbu itdingh aeu geiqmaenh gangjhoengq nguh guek、saedguh hwng guek, hengzguh gij cwngcizgvanh dengcingq, fazyangz gij cingsaenz maeh lumj diuz ding, roengzrengz mbouj gangjhoengq, caz saedcingz、 ok saed geiq、 guh saeh saed、 gouz saedyauq, guh daengz souj maenh gij cizcwz bonjfaenh. Gak gaep lingjdauj ganbu aeu fouzsei mbouj lau, guh daengz najdoiq mauzdun gamj diuhcan gunnanz, najdoiq yung’yiemj gamj ndwn okdaeuj, najdoiq loengloek gamj rapdawz cwzyin.

  Gak gaep dangj cujciz aeu geizhauh sienmingz vih doengh boux ganbu gamj dangrap haenx rap cwzyin, vih doengh boux ganbu gamj fucwz haenx fucwz. Doiq gij ganbu mbouj dangrap、 mbouj guh saeh、 rubrab doi cwzyin de aeu yiemzsuk bihbingz, mwh miz bizyau de guh cujciz cawqleix roxnaeuz dangjgij cawqfaen; doiq gij guh hong mbouj nyinhcaen mbouj caenh cizcwz de aeu yiemzsuk cazdawz cwzyin, danghnaeuz cauhbaenz hougoj yenzcung couh aeu yiemzsuk gyaepcaz cwzyin, eiciuq gijliz eifap cawqleix.

  Gouj、 Yiemzgek Caephengz Dangj Raeuz Cujciz Swnghhoz Cidu

  Gij cujciz swnghhoz aen dangj dwg gij neiyungz caeuq caidij youqgaenj ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz, dwg cungj hingzsik youqgaenj dangj cujciz doiq dangjyenz guh gyauyuz guenjleix gamduk. Itdingh aeu genhciz gak hangh cidu gij cujciz swnghhoz aen dangj, cauhmoq fuengsik fuengfap, demgiengz gij rengzhoengh cujciz swnghhoz aen dangj.

  Daengxcungq dangjyenz、 ganbu daegbied dwg gauhgiz ganbu itdingh aeu demgiengz gij eiqsik aen dangj, seizseiz geiqmaenh swhgeij aen ndangfaenh daih’it dwg dangjyenz. Mboujlwnh boux dangjyenz lawz cungj mbouj ndaej youzliz youq baihrog dangj cujciz, engqgya mbouj ndaej ak gvaq dangj cujciz bae. Moix boux dangjyenz mboujlwnh cizvu sang daemq, cungj aeu camgya gij cujciz swnghhoz aen dangj. Dangj cujciz aeu yiemzgek caephengz cujciz swnghhoz cidu, saedbauj gij cujciz swnghhoz aen dangj raeuz ciengzseiz、 nyinhcaen、 yiemzsuk.

  Genhciz hangh cidu cidu“sam aen hoih dangz goq ndeu”. Dangjyenz bietdingh aeu camgya dangjyenz daihhoih、 dangj siujcuj hoih caeuq hwnj dangjgoq, dangjcihbu aeu dinghgeiz ciuhai cihbu veijyenzvei veiyi. “Sam aen hoih dangz goq ndeu” aeu doed’ok cwngci hagsib caeuq gyauyuz, doed’ok dangjsing donlen, giengiet fuengzre guh baenz biujmienh、 hingzsik、 lumj guh’angq、 yungzsug. Lingjdauj ganbu aeu yungh bujdungh dangjyenz sinhfwn camgya gij cujciz swnghhoz de soj youq aen dangjcihbu roxnaeuz dangjsiujcuj de, genhciz aen cidu dangjyenz lingjdauj ganbu gangj dangjgoq. Moix boux dangjyenz cungj aeu ciuq gvidingh gagrox gyaunab dangjfei, dangjfei sawjyungh caeuq guenjleix aeu goenghai ronghcingx.

  Genhciz minzcuj swnghhozvei caeuq cujciz swnghhozvei cidu. Hai hoih gaxgonq aeu gvangqlangh dingqaeu yigen, haeujlaeg damz sim gyau sim, gwnz hoih aeu nyinhcaen caz baij vwndiz、 laegdaeuq buqcek goekgaen、 doekdingh aen fueng’yiengq cingjgaij, sat hoih le aeu cug gaiq cingjgaij lozsiz. Boux cwngzyenz aen lingjdauj banhswj gaepgwnz dangj cujciz aeu dinghgeiz、 swyouz camgya gij minzcuj swnghhozvei caeuq cujciz swnghhozvei aen lingjdauj banhswj gaeplaj dangj cujciz, fatyienh vwndiz gibseiz gaijcingq. Cunghyangh cwngcigiz daiqdaeuz hai ndei minzcuj swnghhozvei.

  Genhciz aen cidu damz sim damz vah. Ndawgyang gyoengq cwngzyenz aen lingjdauj banhswj dangj cujciz、 ndawgyang banhswj cwngzyenz caeuq dangjyenz、 ndawgyang dangjyenz caeuq dangjyenz aeu ciengzseiz guh damz sim damz vah, caensim doxgyau, gyaulouz swhsiengj, gyauvuenh yigen. Lingjdauj ganbu aeu daiqdaeuz bae damzvah, caemh aeu ciepsouh dangjyenz、 ganbu iekdamz.

  Genhciz doiq dangjyenz guh minzcuj bingzyi. Dukcoi dangjyenz doiqciuq gij dangjyenz biucinj dangjcangh gvidingh de、 doiqciuq gij vahbau haeujdangj、 lienzhaeh goyinz saedceiq guh dangjsing faensik, giengzvaq gij eiqsik dangjyenz、 demgiengz gij gvanhnen aen dangj、 daezsang dangjsing siuhyangj. Doiq gij dangjyenz dangjsing mbouj giengz de, gibseiz guh bihbingz gyauyuz, hanh seizgan gaijcingq; danghnaeuz ginggvaq gyauyuz vanzlij mbouj miz cienjbienq, wngdang gienqnaeuz de doiq dangj roxnaeuz cawzmingz bae.

  Lingjdauj ganbu bietdingh aeu giengzvaq cujciz gvanhnen, gij vwndiz hungloet ndaw gunghcoz caeuq gij saehhangh mizgven goyinz bietdingh aeu ciuq gvidingh ciuq cwngzsi yiengq cujciz cingjsiq baugau, lizhai gangjvei roxnaeuz mwnq dieg gunghcoz aeu sien yiengq cujciz cingjsiq baugau. Doiq gij mbouj miz cingqdangq leixyouz mbouj ciuqseiz baugau、 mbouj ciuqsaed baugau roxnaeuz muenzlumx mbouj bauq de, aeu yiemzsuk cawqleix.

  Cib、 Haiguh Bihbingz Caeuq Gag Bihbingz

  Bihbingz caeuq gag guh bihbingz dwg cungj vujgi raehrub dangj raeuz cangq ndang yw bingh、 baujciz ndangdaej cangqmaenh, hix dwg gij soujduenh youqgaenj gyagiengz caeuq gveihfan ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz haenx, itdingh aeu genhciz mbouj cuengqsoeng bae yungh ndei aen vujgi bihbingz caeuq gag guh bihbingz neix.

  Bihbingz caeuq gag guh bihbingz itdingh aeu genhciz ciuq saedsaeh bae guh, gangj dangjsing mbouj gangj seicingz、 gangj caenleix mbouj gangj cingzmienh, genhciz “doxgiet-bihbingz-doxgiet”, ciuq gij iugouz “ciuq aen gingq、 coih buhvaq、 swiq swiq ndang、 yw yw bingh”, yiemzsuk nyinhcaen daez yigen, cungmuenx yezcingz bae bang dungzci, giengiet mbouj ndaej dawz gag bihbingz bienqbaenz gag biujyangz、dawz dox bihbingz bienqbaenz dox bungjbauq.

  Dangjyenz、 ganbu itdingh aeu dawzyiemz faencek swhgeij, doiq gij vwndiz raen okdaeuj haenx aeu haeujlaeg faensik yienzaen, nyinhcaen cingjgaij. Doiqdaih bihbingz aeu miz couh gaij、 mbouj miz couh yienqmienx swhgeij, mbouj ndaej gauj gij doxceng mbouj miz yenzcwz de.

  Bihbingz bietdingh dwg vihliux goengcingq, mbouj ndaej cujgvanh moegloet, mbouj dwg vih swhgeij okheiq. Giengiet fanjdoiq gij yungzsug cezyoz caeuq vunzndeicujyi lumjbaenz gij saehcingz mbouj gven daengz swhgeij, couh mbouj leix mbouj langh; mingz rox mbouj deng, cix nyinhnaeuz noix gangj dwg ndei, giengiet haekfug yungh vah ndei daeuj lumx gij loengloek swhgeij、 rox loek hoeng mbouj gaij daengj gij baijyiengq loengloek de.

  Gij lingjdauj gihgvanh caeuq lingjdauj ganbu aen dangj doiq gak cungj yigen mbouj doengz cungj itdingh dingqaeu, gujli gaeplaj caensaed fanjying cingzgvang. Gij baugau、 gangjvah ndaw dangj gunghcoz veiyi nem gak loih gunghcoz cungjgez, gaepgwnz gihgvanh caeuq lingjdauj ganbu genjcaz cijdauj gunghcoz, gawq aeu gangj cingzcik caeuq gingniemh, youh aeu gangj vwndiz caeuq giz guh mbouj ndei de; gawq aeu yawjnaek gaijgez vwndiz, youh aeu daj ndaw vwndiz fanjngeix gij hongsaeh bonjndang caeuq gij cwzyin lingjdauj.

  Lingjdauj ganbu daegbied dwg gauhgiz ganbu itdingh aeu daiqdaeuz ciepsouh gak cungj vahgienq、 gamj gangj vahcaen, aeu gij sifan hengzdoengh bihbingz caeuq gag bihbingz dazyinx dangjyenz、 ganbu siubae gij heiqlau ndaw sim lumjbaenz gag bihbingz lau saetnaj、 bihbingz gaepgwnz lau deng boizhaemz、 bihbingz doengzgaep lau sieng huzheiq、 bihbingz gaeplaj lau noix senjbyau daengj. Dawz gij naengzlig fatyienh caeuq gaijgez vwndiz bonjndang dangguh gij baengzgawq youqgaenj gaujhaed bingzgyaq lingjdauj banhswj.

  Cib’it、 Gyagiengz Hanhhaed Caeuq Gamduk Gienzlig Yinhhengz

  Gamduk dwg gij gaenbonj baujcwng sawj gienzlig ndaej cingqdeng yinhhengz, dwg aen banhfap youqgaenj gyagiengz caeuq gveihfan ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz. Bietdingh aeu gyagiengz doiq lingjdauj ganbu guh gamduk, ndaw dangj mbouj cinjhawj miz gij gienzlig mbouj souh hanhhaed haenx, hix mbouj cinjhawj miz boux dangjyenz daegbied mbouj souh gamduk haenx.

  Aeu laeb caezcienz aen gihci hanhhaed caeuq gamduk gienzlig yinhhengz, cauxbaenz gij cidu anbaiz miz gienz bietdingh miz cwzyin、 yungh gienz bietdingh aeu rap cwzyin、 luenh yungh gienz bietdingh aeu gyaepcaz cwzyin.

  Saedhengz hai lied mbaw dan gienzlig, goenghai gienzlig yinhhengz gocwngz caeuq gezgoj, laebcaez aen gihci cazcam mbouj habdangq sawjyungh gienzlig, dawz gienzlig gven haeuj aen loengz cidu bae, hawj gienzlig youq laj ndit yinhhengz.

  Gak gaep cujciz caeuq lingjdauj ganbu dangj raeuz bietdingh aeu youq aen fanveiz yenfaz caeuq faplwd ndawde hozdung, demgiengz fazci eiqsik、hungzyangz fazci cingsaenz, gagrox ciuq gij gienzhanh、 gveihcwz、 cwngzsi fapdingh bae banhsaeh, cieddoiq mbouj ndaej aeu gij vah bouxlawz daeuj dingjlawh faplwd、 aeu gienz at fap、 vih seicingz vuengjfap, cieddoiq mbouj ndaej veizgveih cabfwngz swhfaz.

  Cauhguh aen vanzging ndaw dangj minzcuj gamduk, hawj diuz miengloh minzcuj gamduk ndaw dangj doengrat. Gak gaep dangj cujciz caeuq daengxcungq dangjyenz aeu demgiengz gamduk eiqsik, gawq hengzguh gamduk cwzyin, youh ciepsouh gak fuengmienh gamduk.

  Ndaw dangj gamduk bietdingh aeu doed’ok gamduk dangj raeuz lingjdauj gihgvanh caeuq lingjdauj ganbu daegbied dwg cujyau lingjdauj ganbu. Lingjdauj ganbu aeu cingqdeng doiqdaih gamduk, cujdung ciepsouh gamduk, sibgvenq youq laj gamduk guh hong, cieddoiq mbouj ndaej dingjdoi mbouj hawj gamduk、 ndojbaex gamduk.

  Lingjdauj ganbu daegbied dwg gauhgiz ganbu bietdingh aeu gyagiengz gag haed、 siujsim doiqdaih mwh mbouj miz gamduk caeuq mwh banhsaeh saepsoiq, gagrox genjcaz caeuq gibseiz gaijcingq gij vwndiz youq ndaw hengzsawj gienzlig、 lenzcwng ginzcwng fuengmienh, guh daengz gij gienzlig ndaej hengzsawj de ciuq gveihcwz dengcingq hengzsawj, gij gienzlig wnggai youz gaepgwnz cujciz hengzsawj de gaeplaj cujciz mbouj ndaej hengzsawj, gij gienzlig wnggai youz lingjdauj banhswj cizdij hengzsawj de banhswj cwngzyenz goyinz mbouj ndaej gag hengzsawj, gij gienzlig mbouj wnggai youz swhgeij hengzsawj de cieddoiq mbouj ndaej hengzsawj.

  Doiq gij gawjbauq nangqdaengz veizgij veizfaz hingzveiz de, doiq gij vwndiz dangjyenz fanjying de, mboujlwnh aen dangj cujciz lawz caeuq boux lingjdauj ganbu lawz cungj mbouj cinj muenzlumx mbouj bauq、 ngaiznguh mbouj banh. Gij lingjdauj ganbu nangqdaengz soj fanjying vwndiz de wnggai ndojveq, mbouj cinj gauxca caeuq cabfwngz cujciz diucaz.

  Dangjyenz、 ganbu fanjying gij vwndiz bouxwnq, wnggai dwg vihliux dangjsing, doenggvaq diuz miengloh ndaw dangj cingqciengz saedmingz daeuj fanjyingj, mbouj cinj faenfat gij siusik mbouj cingqsik de, mbouj cinj sanqfat gij saenq gawjbauq mbouj sij coh de, mbouj cinj bangjgauq haih vunz daengj. Doiq gij dangjyenz doenggvaq diuz miengloh cingqciengz fanjying vwndiz de, aen cujciz lawz caeuq boux goyinz lawz cungj mbouj cinj dwkceih boizhaemz, mbouj cinj gag guh gyaepcaz, mbouj cinj yungh diuq ok gunghcoz ganghvei、 gyangqgwz sawjyungh daengj banhfap daeuj fadceih.

  Genhciz boux hawj gienz de aeu fucwz gamduk, yawjraen vwndiz aeu gibseiz cawqleix. Giengzvaq gaepgwnz cujciz gamduk gaeplaj cujciz daegbied dwg cujyau lingjdauj ganbu hengzsawj gienzlig, fuengzre gienzlig saetbae hanhhaed caeuq lanhyungh.

  Doiq dangj cujciz caeuq dangjyenz、 ganbu hengzsawj gienzlig guh gamduk, bietdingh aeu eiciuq gijliz eifap bae guh. Gijgenj genhcaz、 swhfaz gihgvanh yiemzgek eiciuq gijliz eifap ciuq cwngzsi doiq gij hingzveiz dengngeiz veizgij veizfaz yiemzcungh de guh diucaz. Aen cujciz lawz caeuq boux goyinz lawz cungj mbouj ndaej gag gietdingh roxnaeuz souh ceijbaij bae doiq dangjyenz、 ganbu guh gij diucaz soujduenh mbouj habfap de. Doiq gij veizfanj gvidingh de, aeu yiemzsuk cazdawz gijliz caeuq faplwd cwzyin.

  Cibngeih、 Baujciz Gij Cwngci Bonjsaek Goengcingq Seuqcengh

  Hwnqguh yiengh cwngci seuqcengh, giengiet fanjdui nduknaeuh, dwg aen yinvu youqgaenj gyagiengz caeuq gveihfan ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz. Bietdingh aeu cuk maenh diuz swhsiengj fuengzsienq caeuq cidu fuengzsienq dingj nduknaeuh fuengz bienqcaet, roengzrengz cauhlaeb cungj dijci gihci mbouj gamj nduknaeuh、mbouj ndaej nduknaeuh、 mbouj siengj nduknaeuh.

  Gak gaep lingjdauj ganbu itdingh aeu yiemzgek daezswng swhgeij、 yiemzgek yunghgienz、yiemzgek hanhhaed swhgeij, maeuzsaeh aeu saed、 cauhnieb aeu saed、guh vunz aeu saed, dingj ndaej hwnj gienzlig、 gimcienz、lwgsau gaujniemh, yungh gij gienzlig dangj caeuq yinzminz hawj de haenx bae fugsaeh yinzminz.

  Lingjdauj ganbu daegbied dwg gauhgiz ganbu itdingh aeu daiqdaeuz saedhengz seveicujyi haedsim gyacizgvanh, ciepswnj caeuq fazyangz gij cienzdoengj caeuq cozfungh ndei dangj raeuz, hungzyangz Cunghvaz Minzcuz cienzdoengj meijdwz, gangj siuhyangj、 gangj daudwz、 gangj lauxsaed souj saenqyungh、 gangj cinghseuq rox saetnaj, ganq ok vunz gungcanjdangj cungj binjgwz ndei ceiqheiq sang haenx, gagrox duetliz doengh gij mbouj sam mbouj seiq haenx bae.

  Gak gaep lingjdauj ganbu dwg boux fugsaeh yinzminz, mbouj miz gienzleih hengz daegbied, Cunghyangh Cwngcigiz aeu daiqdaeuz caephengz Cunghyangh Bet Hangh Gvidingh. Gak gaep lingjdauj ganbu daegbied dwg gauhgiz ganbu aeu genhciz laeb dangj vih vunzlai、 gaemgienz vih beksingq, genhciz goeng sei faenmingz、 sien goenggya caiq bonjfaenh、 haed gij seisim swhgeij vih vunzlai, daiqdaeuz baujciz gij cozfungh giemhaw、 siujsim、 mbouj ndaenggon、 mbouj simgaenj, baujciz gij cozfungh mbouj lau sinhoj haenqrengz buek guh, daiqdaeuz caephengz gij cunjcwz cinghseuq gag haed, gagrox caeuq daeggienz swhsiengj caeuq daeggienz yienhsiengq guh doucwngh, mbouj cinj leihyungh gienzlig vih swhgeij caeuq bouxwnq maeuzaeu leih’ik seivunz, gimqcij veizfanj caizgingh cidu bae hawj cienz bae hawj doxgaiq bae hawj hanghmoeg, gimqcij yungh gak cungj gyaijbak roxnaeuz luenh laeb mingzmoeg ciemqaeu、 saisaengq gij cienzhuq guekgya caeuq cizdij, gimqcij veizfanj gvidingh daezsang ganbu daiyi biucinj.

  Lingjdauj ganbu daegbied dwg gauhgiz ganbu itdingh aeu gyahdingz、 gyahgyau、 gyahfungh, gyauyuz guenjleix ndei gij vunz ndaw ranz caeuq gij gunghcoz yinzyenz henzndang.

  Yiemzgek caephengz aen cidu baugau lingjdauj ganbu goyinz mizgven saehhangh, caenh’itbouh gveihfan gij coengznieb hingzveiz goenggvan roxnaeuz mehyah nem bouxlwg lingjdauj ganbu. Gimqcij leihyungh cizgenz roxnaeuz gij rengzlig yingjyangj bonjfaenh vih vunz ndaw ranz caeuq caencik baengzyoux maeuzaeu daegbied ciuqgoq, gimqcij gij vunz ndaw ranz caeuq caencik baengzyoux lingjdauj ganbu capfwngz gij gunghcoz ndaw cizgenz fanveiz lingjdauj ganbu、 capfwngz yinzsw anbaiz. Gak gaep lingjdauj banhswj caeuq lingjdauj ganbu doiq gij hingzveiz caencik baengzyoux lingjdauj ganbu veizgveih gauxca de aeu giengiet daeqceih, caiqlij dawz mizgven cingzgvang baugau hawj dangj cujciz.

  Daengxcungq dangjyenz、 ganbu daegbied dwg gauhgiz ganbu bietdingh aeu dingjdangj ndaej nduknaeuh、 ciengzlwenx ndang mbouj gyuek, giengiet caeuq gij yienhsiengq siuhgiz nduknaeuh guh doucwngh, giengiet dingjceih gij gvigawj ndumjyaem, gagrox genj aeu aen gvaengx gyau youx、 gvaengx swnghhoz、gvaengx baengzyoux singjseuq, cieddoiq mbouj ndaej dawz dauq sanghbinj gyauvuenh guh seng’eiq haenx buen haeuj ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz caeuq ndaw gunghcoz daeuj. Gak gaep dangj cujciz aeu rapdawz gij cwzyin fanjdoiq nduknaeuh dizcang cinghseuq, genhciz miz nduknaeuh bietdingh aeu fanj、 miz dam’aeu bietdingh aeu cawz, genhciz “duzguk”、 “duznengznyaen” doengzcaez dwk, genhciz mbouj miz giz gimqgeih、gizgiz cungj guenj daengz、 mbouj yungznyaenx saek di, ndaw dangj baenzbaenz mbouj cinjhawj boux nduknaeuh miz giz ndoj ndang.

  Gyagiengz caeuq gveihfan ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz、 gyagiengz ndaw dangj gamduk dwg gij yinvu caezcaemh daengx dangj, bietdingh aeu daengx dangj itheij doenghfwngz. Gak gaep dangjveij (dangjcuj) aeu cienzmienh hengzguh lingjdauj cwzyin, roengzrengz gaijgez gij vwndiz doedyienh haenx, laebhwnj laebcaez ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz cidu dijhi, dawz gyagiengz caeuq gveihfan ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz、 gyagiengz ndaw dangj gamduk gak hangh yinvu lozsiz daengz dieg. Haeujlaeg senhconz gyauyuz ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz cunjcwz, dawz aen cunjcwz ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz lied haeuj dangjyenz、 ganbu gyauyuz beizyin gij neiyungz bietdingh aeu hag bae.

  Doeksaed dangjveij cawjdaej cwzyin caeuq gijveij gamduk cwzyin, gyagiengz cwzyin gyaepcaz. Boux cujyau fucwz dangjveij (dangjcuj) aeu nyinhcaen hengzguh gij cwzyin boux cwzyin daih’it de. Gak gaep dangj cujciz aeu doenggvaq gyagiengz genjcaz dukcoi doeksaed ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz cingzgvang, laebhwnj laebcaez aen gihci cazcam cwzyin, gaepgwnz dangj cujciz aeu gyagiengz doiq gaeplaj cujciz guh cijdauj gamduk genjcaz, gak gaep cujciz bumwnz caeuq gihgvanh dangj cujciz aeu gyagiengz ngoenznaengz guenjleix, gak gaep gijliz genjcaz gihgvanh aeu yiemzsuk cazcawq gak cungj hingzveiz veizfanj ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz cunjcwz.

  Gyagiengz caeuq gveihfan ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz, aeu daj Cunghyangh Veijyenzvei、 Cunghyangh Cwngcigiz、 Cunghyangh Cwngcigiz Cangzvu Veijyenzvei guhhwnj. Gauhgiz ganbu aeu cingsingj nyinhrox gangjvei swhgeij doiq dangj caeuq guekgya miz maz cung’yausing daegbied, cizvei yied sang yied aeu gagrox ciuq gij biucinj aen dangj daezok de yiemzgek iugouz swhgeij, yied aeu guh daengz dangjsing giengiengz、 dangjgij yiemzmingz, guh daengz doiq dangj itcig cungsim、 ciengzlwenx mbouj fanj dangj. Ceiqdingh aen hengzguh yigen gvendaengz gauhgiz ganbu baenzlawz gvancez lozsiz aen cunjcwz neix, cijdauj caeuq dukcoi gauhgiz ganbu youq ciuqsouj nem caephengz aen cunjcwz ndaw dangj cwngci swnghhoz fuengmienh guh yienghndei.

  Cienzmienh coengzyiemz ceih dangj ciengzlwenx cungj byaij youq gwnz roen. Daengx dangj aeu genhciz roengzrengz mbouj cuengqsoeng, doengzcaez dajcauh yiengh cwngci swnghdai fungheiq seuqcingh goengcingq de, saedbauj dangj raeuz itcig cungj baenz gij lingjdauj haedsim giengiengz aen saehnieb yiengh seveicujyi miz Cungguek daegsaek de.
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